For additional information, please email


  1. WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre) Human Papillomavirus and related Cancers in South Africa. Summary Report 2015. Accessed March 2015.
  2. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Atkins W, Wolf S, Hamborsky J, eds. 12th ed. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, 2011.
  3. Public Health Agency of Canada. Human Papillomavirus. 2010:1-5. Last accessed 5/5/2015.
  4. Meyers J, Ryndock E, Conway MJ, et al. The Susceptibility of HPV16 and Quasivirus Particles to Clinically Relevant Disinfectants. 26th International Papillomavirus Conference, Montreal, Canada. 2010:P-109.
  5. Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Detection of HPV types in fingertip samples from newly sexually active female university students. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010 ; 19(7): 1682–1685.
  6. Watson RA. Human Papillomavirus: Confronting the Epidemic – A Urologist Perspective. Reviews in Urology. 2005;7(3): 135-144.
  7. Pao CC, Tsai PL, Shang YL, et al. Possible non-sexual transmission of genital human papillomavirus infections in young women. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993;12:221-223.
  8. Hathaway JK. HPV: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2012;55(3):671-680.
  9. Weaver BA. Epidemiology and Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection. JAOA. 2006;106(3):S1-S8.
  10. Winer RL, Lee S-K, Hughes JP et al. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection: Incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(3):218-226.
  11. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Genital HPV Infection [fact sheet]. Updated 24 November 2009. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  12. Ferris DG, Waller JL, Owen A et al. HPV Vaccine acceptance among mid-adult women. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(1):31-37.
  13. Quantitative research findings on rape in South Africa. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  14. Parking DM, Bray F. Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers. Vaccine 2006: 24: 11–25.
  15. Jin XW, Lipold L, Sikon A, Rome E. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Safe, Effective, Underused. Cleveland Clin J Med. January 2013;80(1):49-60.
  16. Munger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, et al. Mechanism of Human Papillomavirus-induced oncogenesis. J Virol. 2004;78: 11451-11460.
  17. Porter RS, Kaplan JL et al. The MERCK Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 19th Edition, 2011. Section 11: Infectious Diseases: 131-Immunisation 1170-1180.
  18. Gardasil approved Package Insert, 25 March 2015.
  19. Read TRH, Hocking JS, Chen MY, et al. The near disappearance of genital warts in young women 4 years after commencing a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Sex Transm Infect 2011. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050234.
  20. Bauer H, Wright G, Chow J. Evidence of Human Papillomavirus Effectiveness in Reducing Genital Warts: An Analysis of California Public Family Planning Administrative Claims Data 2007-2010. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:833–835. doi:10.2105/AJPH. 2011.300465..
  21. Brotherton JML, Fridman M, May CL, et al. Early effect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Lancet. 2011;37:2085-2092.
  22. Cervarix Package Insert. MIMS Desk Reference (MDR) Volume 55 2015. Pg: 409.
  23. Kahn JA. Vaccination as prevention strategy for human papillomavirus-related diseases. J Adolescent Health. 2005;37:S10-S16.
  24. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention: Human Papillomavirus vaccine safety. Accessed: 4 November 2015.
  25. Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J, et al. Effect of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ. 2012;344:e1401.
  26. World health report - Executive Summary 1995. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  27. WHO. HPV and Related Cancers Summary Report Update. September 15, 2010 WHO 2010
  28. McCutchan JA. Merck manual Professional Version - Genital Warts - Sexually... Accessed 4 November 2015.
  29. Schiffman M, Castle P E, Jeronimo J, et al. Human Papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet 2007; 370: 890-907.
  30. Nixon J, Vasterling G. Cervical cancer. Data and statistical reports. Accessed 29 May 2015.
  31. Vaccine Fact book 2013. Pharmaceutical Research and manufacturers of America. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  32. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule. Unites States 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.... Accessed 4 November 2015.
  33. World Health Organization. Table 2: Summary of WHO position paper on routine immunizations for children. Updated 27 Feb 2015.... Accessed 4 November 2015.
  34. World Health Organization. Human Papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly epidemiological record 2014: 89 (43): 465-492.
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Safety. Frequently asked questions about vaccine safety. Last accessed 16 July 2015.
  36. Wikipedia. Cervical cancer. Last accessed 20 July 2015.
  37. Wikipedia. Antibody. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  38. Wikipedia. Benign tumor. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  39. Wikipedia. Female reproductive system. Accessed 4 November 2015.
  40. Ali H, Guy RJ, Wand H, et al. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013; 13:140.
  41. D’Ambrogio A,Yerly S , Sahli R, et al. Human Papilloma virus type and recurrence rate after surgical clearance of anal condylomata acuminata. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2009 36(9): 536-540.
  42. Oliphant J, Perkins N. Impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on genital wart diagnoses at Auckland Sexual Health Services. NZMJ 2011, 124 (1339): 1-8.
  43. Hariri S, Bennett NM, Niccolai LM, et al. Reduction in HPV 16/18-associated high grade cervical lesions following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States-2008-2012. Vaccine 2015: 33: 1608-1613.
  44. Leval A,Herweijer E, Arnheim-Dahlström L, et al. Incidence of genital warts in Sweden before and after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine availability. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012: 206: 860-866.
  45. Merckx M, van den Broeck D, Benov I, et al. Early effect of human papillomavirus vaccination in Belgium. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2015, 24:340–342.
  46. Kury CMH, Kury MMH, Silva RMH, et al. Implementation of the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV in the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil-A combination of strategies to increase immunization coverage and early reduction of genital warts. Trials in Vaccinology 2013.
  47. Baandrup L, Blomberg M, Dehlendorff C, et al. Significant decrease in the incidence in young Danish Women after implementation of a national human papillomavirus vaccination program. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2012. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31827bd66b.
  48. Blomberg M, Dehlendorff C, Munk C,and Kjaer SK. Strongly decreased risk of genital warts after vaccination against human papillomavirus: Nationwide follow-up of vaccinated and unvaccinated girls in Denmark. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013;57(7):929–934.
  49. Anil K. - Journal of Adolescent Health 46 (2010) - Beyond Cervical Cancer Burden of Other HPV -Related Cancers Among Men and Women, 2010.